Timeline of polymers / manufactured plastics

Timeline of polymers / manufactured plastics

Postby Fat Tony » Sep 11, 2018 4:15 pm

http://www.bpf.co.uk/plastipedia/plasti ... fault.aspx

Earliest - Horn, Tortoiseshell
1284 - First recorded mention of The Horners Company of London, with horn and tortoiseshell as the predominant early natural plastic.

1820s - Vulcanised Rubber, Gutta Percha, Parkesine, Cellulose

1823 - Macintosh uses rubber gum to waterproof cotton and the ‘mac’ is bornImage

1845 - Bewley designs extruder for gutta percha

1850 - First submarine telegraph cable in gutta percha laid between Dover and Calais

1862 - Display of Parkesine, predecessor of celluloid (cellulose nitrate), at the 1862 Great International Exhibition in London

1872 - Hyatt brothers patented first plastics injection moulding machine

1885 - George Eastman Kodak patents machine for producing continuous photographic film based on cellulose nitrate.

1880 - Fashion for long hair leads to cellulose nitrate replacing horn as the preferred material for combs

1890 - Thermoforming introduced and used to make babies rattles from cellulose nitrate

1892 - Viscose silk (rayon) developed by Cross and Bevan (Chardonnet Silk)

1898 - Beginning of mass production of rpm gramophone records from shellac

1899 - Krische and Spittler in Germany awarded patent for Casein Plastic from milk. Artefacts introduced at the Plastics Universal Exhibition in 1900

1900 - 1929 - Early Synthetics, Casein, Bakelite, Ureas

1909 - Casein plastics, derived from milk, developed by Erinoid.

1910 - stockings made of viscose (CA) begin to be manufactured in Germany

1915 - Queen Mary sees casein products at the British Industries Fair and orders several pieces of jewellery made from it

1916 - Rolls Royce begins to use phenol formaldehyde in its car interiors and boasts about it

1919 - Eichengrun produce first cellulose acetate moulding powder

1921 - Beginning of rapid growth of phenolic mouldings especially for electrical insulation, with addition of phenolic laminates in 1930

1922 - Staudinger publishes his work that recognises that plastics are composed of long chain molecules – leading to Nobel prize in 1935

1924 - Rossiter at British Cyanide develops urea thiourea formaldehyde resins, subsequently commercialised as the first water white transparent thermosetting moulding powder.

1926 - Harrods hosts first display of new coloured thermosetting plastic tableware produced by Brookes and Adams, The Streetly Manufacturing Company and Thomas De La Rue and Co.

1926 - Eckert and Ziegler patent first commercial modern plastics injection moulding machine.

1929 - Bakelite Ltd receives its largest ever order for phenolic moulding powder for the casing of the Siemens telephone

1930s - Plastics as an Industry
1930 - ‘Scotch’ tape, the first transparent sticky tape invented in US by 3M Company

1932 - Screw per-plasticisation in injection moulding patented

1933 - BPF founded

1933 - Fawcett and Gibson at ICI discover polyethylene

1933 - Crawford at ICI develops first commercial synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate)

1935 - Troester in Germany produce first extruder designed for thermoplastics.

1935 - Carothers and DuPont patent nylon

1936 - First production of aircraft canopies made from ‘Perspex’.

1937 - Columbo and Pasquetti in Italy produce first twin screw extruder machine

1937 - First commercial production of polystyrene by IG Farben, Germany

1938 - Full scale production of nylon 6 fibre begins in United States

1938 - First toothbrush with nylons tufts manufactured

1938 - Plunkett (DuPont) discovers PTFE

1939 - First commercial production of polyethylene in UK by ICI

1939 - Outbreak of war – strategic stockpiles, plastics in war

1940s - Plastics in War

1940s - Use of polyethylene in radar

1940 - First production of PVC in UK

1940 - DuPont introduces polyacrylonitrile (PAN), an early engineering product

1941 - Whinfield and Dickson, of the Calico Printer's Association of Manchester, patent "polyethylene terephthalate" (PET); followed by the creation of the first polyester fiber called Terylene.

1942 - ‘Super Glue’ (methyl cyanoacrylate) first discovered by Dr Harry Coover, Eastman


1943 - First pilot plant for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) ; to be marketed under trade mark ‘Teflon’

1945 - The production of LDPE the Sqezy bottle by Monsanto caused a rapid expansion of the industry, with containers produced to replace glass bottles for shampoos and liquid soaps.

1947 - Formica melamine faced decorative laminates introduced into the UK

1948 - Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) produced

1948 - George deMestral invents Velcro, patented in 1955

1948 - Introduction of 12” long playing records made from polyvinyl chloride (pvc)

1949 - First Airfix self-assembly model initially made of cellulose acetate and later polystyrene

1949 - High impact polystyrene introduced as a commercial plastic

1949 - Launch in US of Tupperware made from low density polyethylene

1949 - ‘Lycra’ based on polyurethane, invented by DuPont

1950s - Textiles, Fashion, Toys, Domestic uses

1950s - the polyethylene bag makes its first appearance

1950s - Introduction of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymers

1950 - ICI opens new factory at Redcar to produce Terylene

1951 - Festival of Britain

1953 - Commercialisation of polyester fibres introduces the concept of ‘drip dry’ and ‘non-iron’

1954 - Polystyrene foam (introduced by Dow Chemical Co.)

1955 - First production of high density polyethylene in UK

1956 - Reliant Regal 111, first commercially successful all glass-reinforced-plastic bodied car goes on sale

1956 - Eero Saarinen’s Tulip Chair launched, consisting of seat made of glass-fibre-reinforced plastic.

1956 - DuPont files patents for first acetals (POM)

1957 - The hoop is reinvented as the Hula Hoop by Knerr & Medlin, Wham-O Toy Company

1957 - First production of polypropylene by Montecatini using Ziegler-Natta catalysts

1958 - First production of polycarbonates (Bayer and General Electric)

1958 - Lego patents its stud and block coupling system and produces toys of cellulose acetate, later Acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene polymer.

1959 - Barbie Doll unveiled by Mattel at American International Toy Fair

1960s & 70s - Colour and Design

Early 1960s - introduction of water based acrylic paints

1960 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate co-polymers launched by DuPont

1962 - DuPont launches polyimide films and varnishes

1962 - Silicone gel breast implants pioneered successfully

1965 - Kevlar® is first developed by DuPont

1966 - Blow moulding of fuel tanks introduced

1967 - Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ‘Blow’ chair designed by Scolari, De Pas and Lomazzifor manufactured by Znaotta

1969 - Neil Armstrong plants a nylon flag on the moon.

1970 - First Yellow HDPE pressure pipes for gas introduced into UK by Wavin/British Gas.

1973 - Polyethylene terephthalate beverage bottles introduced

1976 - Plastics in its great variety of forms becomes the most used type of material in the world

1977 - Polyaryletheretherketone (PEEK) was first prepared by ICI

1979 - Introduction of first commercial mobile/ portable ‘phones

1979 - First PVC-U double glazed windows installed

1980s & 90s - High Performance Plastics

1980 - First production of linear low density polyethylene

1980 - First Blue HDPE pressure pipes for potable water introduced into UK.

1982 - First artificial heart made mainly of polyurethane, introduced implanted in a human.

1983 - The slim plastic Swatch watch made of 51 mainly plastic components

1983 - ICI and Bayer launch PEEK, PPS (polyphenyene sulphide), and PES (polyether sulphone)

1987 - BASF in Germany produces a polyacetylene that has twice the electrical conductivity of copper.

1988 - Introduction of triangular recycling symbols relating to plastics

1989 - First light-emitting polymers (poly-ethyne) discovered in Cambridge

1989 - The Gravimetric Batch Blender is invented by Steve Maguire revolutionising the industry and bringing affordable gravimetric blending to processors

1990 - ICI launches Biopol, the first commercially available biodegradable plastic

1991 - Dyson’s vacuum cleaner launched in Japan

1994 - Smart car with lightweight flexible integrally coloured polycarbonate panels introduced

1998 - Free standing Zanussi Oz fridge, with insulation and outer skins made in one process from polyurethane foam introduced

2000 - 2010 - Nano Technology, Airbus A380, iPod

2000s Nano-Technology applied to polymer and composit applications

2000 - First commercial metallocene catalysed polyolefins introduced.

2001 - iPod dreamed up by Tony Fadell, an independent inventor, developed by Apple Computers

2005 - NASA explores the advantages of a polyethylene based material RFX1, as the material for the spaceship that will send man to Mars

2005 - Polycond project established to look at the potential of conductive polymers

2008 - Airbus 380, comprising 22% carbon-fibre reinforced plastics flies into Heathrow

2009 - Boeing 787 (nicknames 'Boeing's Plastic Dream') comes into service, its skin is made up of 100% Plastic composites with plastic making up 50% of all materials in the plane.

2010 + - Plastics fit for the Future

Bullet Proof Polymer - Scientists at Rice University, Texas have created a new super polymer material that can stop a 9mm bullet and seal the hole behind it

Plastics Blood - Developed by the University of Sheffield to mimic haemoglobin, for use in trauma situations where blood is needed quickly

Plastic Solar Cells - A polymer solar cell that can produce electricity from sunlight by the photovoltaic effect provides a lightweight, disposable and inexpensive alternative to traditional solar panels

Implantable Polymers - Medical grade and implantable biomaterials such as PEEK will be used in neurological applications to help control epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease and brain trauma

Commercial - Space Flights Lightweight carbon composite materials will be crucial in the realisation of sub-orbital tourist spaceflights

3D Printed - Body Parts Using plastic materials such as PMMA car parts can be printed at home and doctors can produce replica livers or kidneys for transplant patients

Flexible Plastic Screens - Organic light-emitting diodes are placed on plastic foil to create electronic devices with flexible displays

Driverless Cars - In the future all driverless vehicles will be almost entirely constructed from plastic parts due to the light weighting properties they provide
User avatar
Fat Tony
Posts: 2645
Joined: Apr 17, 2004 10:39 am
Location: Nova-Scotia

Return to Interests

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest